Federal laws apply to people living in the United States and its territories. For most of the nineteenth century, social problems that were too important to family members or private charities fell under the jurisdiction of the local government, consisting of the city, town or county, rather than the more distant national government. The power of the local government to enact social laws was based on the power of the state to restrict individual freedom and property for the benefit of the common good. Later, as local governments remained involved, states began to assume some of the obligation to care for some of their citizens. Beginning in the late 1820s, a number of states established institutions for the mentally ill. A series of studies by reformer Dorothea Dix played an important role in drawing the attention of state legislators to the plight of the mentally ill. Later in the nineteenth century, state and local governments created other specialized institutions for dependent people, such as homes for. B the blind or mentally retarded. It includes agrarian laws that regulate and exploit agricultural land and is one of the most important branches of social law as it offers protection to workers who own land. Although the United States has had social legislation since colonial times, its nature and scope have changed over the years. For much of U.S. history, Americans have preferred to rely on the marketplace to distribute goods and services equitably among the population. In cases where the market was clearly unable to provide categories of people such as widows, orphans or the elderly, families were expected to take responsibility for caring for their members.
When family members were unable to do so, private, religious or charitable organizations often played this role. Assistance from the city, county or local government was rarely provided, and even then only in cases where the need arose due to conditions beyond the individual`s control, such as illness, age, mental disability or widowhood. Title IV of the Act created the program known as The Caregiver Assistance (ADC), which provided appropriate federal funds to help states fund maternal assistance programs. In managing the program, states were given a wide margin of appreciation in determining who was eligible for CDA and how much they received. The result was that the benefits of one State could be five or six times higher than those of another State. In 1939, Congress passed a bill that gave widows with children the right to social security benefits if their husbands had contributed to the system while working. For example, widows were increasingly inclined to rely on social security, while CDA gradually supported more divorced, abandoned, and never-married mothers. As a result, CDA has imposed a certain level of stigma that, unlike Social Security, is limited to low-income people.
As in the case of duels, laws that are in blatant conflict with existing norms tend to backfire, Jackson said. «The brutal tightening of laws leads to considerable anarchy. » They consist of a set of principles and rules or regulations whose sole purpose is to protect, integrate and monitor the appropriate behaviour of individuals living in a society, whether in the workplace or in the workplace. Social law is the equivalent of human rights and also seeks ways to make the rights and guarantees of the sectors most affected by society more flexible and stronger. It is the way in which the law promotes order and repairs the differences that may exist between social groups to ensure protection. But, Jackson said, «ill-conceived — excessively strict — laws for one type of behavior — petty drug-related crime in inner cities — can make laws against other types of behavior completely ineffective.» The problem is that these overly strict laws turn into «criminals» of too many people, discouraging citizens from becoming whistleblowers ready to call the police. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets limits for certain air pollutants. It also enforces federal drinking water and drinking water laws. The EPA also enforces federal regulations to limit the impact of businesses on the environment. Norms reinforce themselves because it`s much easier to live in a society where people`s behavior is predictable and people understand what is expected of them, he said.
Early in his presidency, Lyndon B. Johnson introduced an ambitious program of social legislation called the Great Society, which turned out to be the largest expansion of the federal government in the United States since the Great Depression. Unlike the New Deal, which was a response to difficult economic times, the Great Society`s programs were adopted at a time of prosperity. During the Johnson years, Congress passed three major civil rights laws. The 1964 law prohibited discrimination in the workplace and segregation of public housing, the 1965 law guaranteed the right of blacks to vote, and a third law of 1968 prohibited discrimination in the housing market. How does a society encourage more whistleblowing? «It`s very difficult to destigmatize whistleblowing because it often means being accountable for a community that someone is a member of,» Jackson said. But whistleblowing can help. «Private whistleblowing can be at the heart of law enforcement. This implies that a society where laws conflict with social norms will not be able to take advantage of private enforcement and will have less effective laws,» the researchers wrote. Let`s go back to our example of having several women for a while.
It is illegal, a violation of the law, to have multiple women in American culture. This has not always been the case, and it is not true in all countries, but in the United States, it has been considered so taboo, morally and ethically reprehensible that there are laws that can punish people for marrying more than one person at a time. However, there may be people who don`t think it`s wrong, or certain groups, but no matter, it`s still illegal. Task: We rely on informal social control to influence people`s behavior. B for example stinking eye, cold shoulder or correcting a person`s behavior to make sure people adapt. .